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This work allowed the researchers to build a new and more precise timeline for the fossils, artifacts and other material found at Denisova.The team used a dating method called optically stimulated luminescence, which can determine when certain minerals within the layers were last exposed to sunlight.Because they focused on dating the layers of the cave itself, rather than direct-dating the fossils and artifacts like the other team, the researchers’ conclusions are different than that of their colleagues — but not contradictory.The stratigraphic analysis suggests that Denisovans were present in the cave beginning at least 287,000 years ago and continuing until about 55,000 years ago.Known for decades as an important paleoanthropological site, Denisova Cave revealed its greatest treasure little more than a decade ago: fragmentary remains of a previously unknown close evolutionary relative, the Denisovans.Despite the limited remains found, researchers were able to extract ancient DNA (a DNA) and establish that the Denisovans were most closely related to Neanderthals.

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Additional analysis found one of the fragments contained mitochondrial DNA consistent with Neanderthals; of the other two fragments, one yielded no a DNA evidence and the other is still being tested.

Researchers sampled these Denisova Cave artifacts — bone points and pierced teeth — and fossils to determine a more precise timeline for hominins using the site.

The Siberian cave has been home to Neanderthals as well as Denisovans, our enigmatic evolutionary cousins.

The ages of many of the finds are beyond the limits of radiocarbon dating (which only goes back about 50,000 years).

While other methods of dating have longer ranges, they generally date the sediments in which items are found, not the items themselves.

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